Varicose veins are a specific disease of the vessels of the venous section, accompanied by malfunctioning valves and poor blood flow. From Latin, "varicose veins" can be translated as "swelling", which fully corresponds to the visual picture of the disease. Surgery for varicose veins of the lower extremities is the most common and effective treatment method.
When Conservative Treatment Won't Help
There are several options for treating varicose veins. In the initial stages, conservative therapy is prescribed, but sometimes even in this period, an operation may be prescribed.
The reasons for the surgery are as follows:
- Physiological pathology: it is understood that the development of varicose veins is not caused by a secondary factor, but by the characteristics of the organism or by inheritance;
- extreme stages of varicose veins, when conservative medicine is already powerless;
- presence of trophic ulcerations in the lower extremities;
- violation of the blood circulation of the vessels of the lower extremities, which directly affects the general condition of the patient;
- sudden blockage of blood vessels (thrombophlebitis).
Despite the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, surgery is not used in all situations.
Contraindications for varicose vein surgery:
- a constant increase in blood pressure or a tendency to this disease;
- serious infectious pathologies;
- severe heart disease (recent myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease);
- is over seventy years old;
- dermatological diseases of an inflammatory nature: eczema, psoriasis;
- pregnancy (second half of term).
In each individual case, the phlebologist independently assesses the patient's condition and makes a decision on the appointment of one or another type of operation for varicose veins.
Types of vein surgery
Surgical treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities provides several ways to influence the focus of the problem.
The most common type of surgery that involves the removal of varicose veins by surgery.
This method involves making a small incision in the skin in the area of varicose veins. After that, the affected area of the vein is completely removed.
The removal of leg veins with this method takes about an hour, the patient is discharged from the hospital after one or two days. The effectiveness of the method reaches a fairly high percentage, however, if the doctor's prescriptions are not followed, serious complications are possible.
Miniphlebectomy is a method of treating varicose veins, which involves piercing the skin in the affected area rather than incisions. The operation is performed under local anesthesia in a day hospital. This means that after medical procedures are completed, the patient goes home almost immediately.
Benefits of miniphlebectomy:
- without the need for general anesthesia;
- outpatient conditions;
- minimum number of contraindications;
- minimal trauma to the skin;
- missing a period of rehabilitation.
Mini-phlebectomy for varicose veins is often used as an auxiliary method or used in combination with other types of operations.
Sclerotherapy of the veins of the legs: definition of varicose veins by ultrasound. After that, a special solution is injected into the affected vein, which sticks the varicose veins, preventing blood flow. Thanks to the operation, the blood supply to the lower extremities is restored, and trophic ulcers gradually heal.
There are 2 sclerotherapy methods:
- Ecosclerotherapy: the operation is used when the diameter of the varicose vein is greater than one centimeter. This method is based on the examination of the problem area and the subsequent injection of a special substance. Narrows the lumen of the vessel, restoring blood flow.
- Foam useis the safest and most effective type of surgery, which involves the introduction of a special foamy substance into the varicose vein. The lumen of the vessel is completely blocked, saving the patient from pathological manifestations.
Sclerotherapy for varicose veins is used in a complex way.
Laser Vein Removal
Laser removal of varicose veins is the most modern, technologically advanced and safe method to influence varicose veins. The principle of the operation is based on a puncture of the skin in the area of varicose veins and the introduction of a laser light guide inside. The beam dissolves the varicose vein without consequences for the patient's body.
Laser coagulation is a type of laser surgery, whose action leads to the welding of varicose veins, blocking blood flow.
RFA of the veins of the lower extremities: obliteration by radiofrequency. The principle of operation is based on a puncture of the skin area followed by the introduction of an ultrasonic sensor. It emits special microwaves that act on varicose veins causing them to clot. The positive side of the operation is the possibility of dosing waves, thus regulating the process of gluing the veins.
The surgical treatment of varicose veins, regardless of the method, is a rather serious manipulation, which involves an extensive preparatory stage:
- Exam and consultation with a surgeon.
- Ultrasound for varicose veins is a mandatory diagnostic method that allows you to identify varicose veins.
- General analysis of blood and urine.
- Biochemical blood test.
- Blood coagulation indices.
- Chest X-ray.
- Control of blood pressure.
On the eve of the operation, you should limit yourself to a light meal and in the morning arrive at the hospital on an empty stomach. To prevent anesthesia from damaging the body, it is necessary to provide information in advance about allergies and possible medications to which such a reaction may occur.
The postoperative period after the removal of varicose veins in the legs is uneventful and in most cases without complications. Specific recommendations depend on the type of operation performed. For example, if after phlebectomy a patient needs 2 to 3 days to recover, after laser removal of varicose veins, he returns home the day of surgery.
Patients who need sick leave are issued a document for the period that provides for the possibility of going to work depending on the type of activity. If the profession is not associated with physical activity and the prolonged presence of a person standing during the day, then sick leave is issued for a period of 5-7 days. Otherwise, the certificate of incapacity for work may have a term of up to 2-3 weeks. In each individual case, the doctor makes a decision based on the indicators of the postoperative period.
The operation to treat varicose veins includes a set of preventive measures:
- the first days after the operation to remove varicose veins, elastic bandages should be used in the area of punctures or incisions;
- wear compression underwear: stockings, knee length;
- after the operation, limit the lifting of any weight, and within six months - in the amount of no more than 10 kg;
- limit sports to jogging, walking, swimming;
- keep track of excess weight;
- take timely courses of drug therapy aimed at restoring venous tone and excluding the formation of varicose veins;
- timely medical checks;
- reduce the consumption of coffee and tea;
- do leg gymnastics;
- wear loose shoes;
- be outdoors more often and lead a healthy lifestyle.
In the first days after the operation to eliminate varicose veins, it is necessary to exclude hot baths, vigorous physical activity, including driving a car, as well as limit smoking and alcohol consumption.
Cost of surgery
The price of varicose vein surgery depends on many nuances. This includes both a medical examination and a set of additional tests, without which it is impossible to do so.
As a general rule, when undergoing an examination in the same clinic where the operation is planned, the cost of services will be lower if the manipulations were performed in different places.
By asking which trade is more efficient, in this case, you can safely focus on pricing. Although laser removal of varicose veins is the most expensive method, it is at the same time the most effective, painless and does not provide relapses.